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the_health_benefits_of_dieting_and_exercise_during_pregnancy [2017/10/01 14:11]
ashleysly
the_health_benefits_of_dieting_and_exercise_during_pregnancy [2018/07/29 01:22]
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-=Introduction= 
-It is essential that women are able to access multiple health promoting materials so they can be a judge on what to do and when they should do certain aspects with their bodies through their life. A fundamental characteristic of health promotion is that it aims to empower people to take increased control over aspects of their lives which affect their own, and others’, health (Ina Simnett, 1995). Health, as the World Health Organization (WHO) defines, is the state of complete physical, social and mental wellbeing and not just the absence of disease or infirmity (Sanjiv Kumar, GS Preetha. 2012). However, health is still a major concern amongst the public and through politics which leads to a need to design many health promotion resources which help support autonomy giving control to people for their lives. The purpose of health promotion may be usefully considered as that of intervening when individuals are considered as having a high degree of potential for change, rather than waiting until maladaptive behaviours have become more pronounced (Joseph E. Zins, Donald I. Wagner, Charled A. Maher, 1985). 
  
-During pregnancy, your diet could be a crucial part for the growth and development of an unborn child. Pregnancy already puts an enormous amount of stress on the systems, such as kidneys and blood pressure, within the woman’s body. Eating healthily during pregnancy will help your baby to develop and grow properly (http://​www.nhs.uk/​conditions/​pregnancy-and-baby/​pages/​healthy-pregnancy-diet.aspx). And it is up to the woman to decide what she needs to do. 
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-But dieting is not only about restricting calorie intake and losing weight. If weight loss is not done correctly or improper precautions aren’t taken while exercising, it can be hazardous to both mother and baby leading to complications. 
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-Not only is dieting important. It is also important for adequate exercise allowing the child bearer to be able to maintain a constant BMI so they do not become overweight or obese leading to further problems during or after the pregnancy. 
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-This essay will explore the complications of dieting, types of foods, nutrients and exercise stating advantages and disadvantages during child bearing. These range through many types of diets such as vegetarian and vegan diets along with different types of exercising which is recommended. The essay is accompanied with a health promotion resource which was designed to inform unaware pregnant women that the dieting and exercising is an important aspect in childbearing and keeping healthy. 
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-=Discussion= 
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-Health is a term used widely in our society. People will state that they are in good health, and asking after one’s health is one of the commonest forms of greeting (Susan R. Thomson, 2014). It is possible to see health promotion as something that is designed to benefit everyone, as a means of improving health which has to be a ‘good’ thing (Sidell et al, 2003). 
-There is a converse argument where health promotion is considered bad as it seems to be commanding and not allowing people to choose their own lifestyles, taking control of their lives. Health promotion takes a different approach form '​mainstream'​ public health, and we suggest that health promotion is more a form of politics than a part of the medical enterprise (Rachel Dixey, Ruth Cross, Sally Foster and James Woodall, 2013). This also allows an economical market to grow based upon health related products such as diet pills, vitamin and mineral supplements,​ low fat products, and medical procedures such as liposuction for profit. Even though there are many remedies and procedures available to keep healthy, it is up to the public to decide what they would like to eat and what they would like to do for exercise. Puhl, Petersen and Leuhdicke, 2013 gives a perfect example that health is often seen as the responsibility of individuals,​ and there can be a perception that those individuals who have health problems, particularly lifestyle related problems, are at fault, or to blame, for their conditions. This could mean people are responsible for conditions such as obesity where the body retains and stores the fat leading to excess weight which could potentially become a high risk factor for heart disease. 
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-The most common and important area of health promotion is generally exercise and diet. There are many guidelines issued by many professions and governments globally. Fruit and vegetables are a vital source of vitamins and minerals and should make up just over a third of the food we eat each day (http://​www.nhs.uk/​Livewell/​Goodfood/​Pages/​Healthyeating.aspx). Fruit and vegetables can a good, however they can also contain a vast amount of sugars which can be bad while child bearing as an increase of sugar can potentially cause gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar that develops during pregnancy and usually disappears after giving birth(http://​www.nhs.uk/​Conditions/​gestational-diabetes/​Pages/​Introduction.aspx). 
-The UK Government actively promotes an active lifestyle and a healthy diet and shows this by using a food plate diagram along with tips, and in one publication they state a multitude of suggestions such as "Eat less often and in small amounts",​ "Chose wholegrain or higher fibre versions with less added fat, salt and sugar" and "Eat at least 5 portions of a variety of fruit and vegetables every day" (http://​www.nhs.uk/​Livewell/​Goodfood/​Documents/​The-Eatwell-Guide-2016.pdf). 
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-"A portion of fruit (80g) is roughly equivalent to: 
-1 slice or half a large fruit e.g. a slice of melon or half a grapefruit. 
-2 medium size fruit e.g. an apple. 
-3 small size fruits e.g. 2 plums or satsumas."​ (http://​www.nhs.uk/​Change4Life/​Pages/​five-a-day-portion-sizes.aspx) 
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-NHS Wales has a vast amount of information that covers a number of health issues, including potential problems during pregnancy with diets. The information provided proves that a healthy diet is a major component of living a healthy lifestyle which is an important aspect of health promotion. 
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-The Vegan Society, formed in 1944 and based in the United Kingdom, defines veganism as, "a way of living that seeks to exclude, as far as possible and practicable,​ all forms of exploitation of, and cruelty to, animals for food, clothing, and any other purpose."​ The Vegetarian Resource Group, a non-profit educational group in the United States, says, "​Vegetarians do not eat meat, fish, or poultry."​ Vegans, in addition to being vegetarian, do not use other animal products and by-products such as eggs, dairy products, honey, leather, fur, silk, wool, cosmetics, and soaps derived from animal products."​ (Reed Mangels, 2011). 
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-The promotion of health on weight loss and exercise is not an easy task. By some people, it can be considered offensive dues to obesity and people thinking they are to blame for problems that arise and can lead to anxiety. The maternal risks during pregnancy include gestational diabetes and preeclampsia. The foetus is at risk for stillbirth and congenital anomalies. Obesity in pregnancy can also affect health later in life for both mother and child. For women, these risks include heart disease and hypertension. Children have a risk of future obesity and heart disease. Women and their offspring are at increased risk for diabetes (Meaghan A Leddy, Michael L Power, Jay Schulkin. 2008). This proves that there are benefits to exercising so that the mother is not in the obese category through the pregnancy. 
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-It's important to eat a varied and balanced diet during pregnancy. (http://​www.nhs.uk/​Livewell/​Vegetarianhealth/​Pages/​Pregnancyandchildren.aspx). However, this is not easy as a vegan or vegetarian as they tend to lack key vitamins and minerals such as Iron, Vitamin B12 and Vitamin D. This is because meat contains many vitamins and minerals that the body needs. It is the reason that not only do we have molars for the grinding of vegetation, but we also have canine teeth which help cut and chew the meat to be consumed. Deficiencies are quite rare, and you certainly should not include animal products in your diet to get B12. But you do need to include a source of B12 (Erik Marcus, 2001). 
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-Exercise is good for you in pregnancy, and is perfectly safe. However, it's thought that as many as three quarters of women with a healthy pregnancy don't do enough exercise. Taking daily exercise won't harm you or your baby, and may even help to prevent complications,​ such as pre-eclampsia. It may also help you to have a shorter labour and increase your chances of giving birth vaginally (http://​www.babycentre.co.uk/​a758/​guide-to-exercising-in-pregnancy#​ixzz4aamafNmQ,​ 2013). Three quarters of women is quite a lot of people. For obvious reasons, sports or exercise which requires heavy lifting and possible chances of being thrown off balance or falling (such as skiing, gymnastics or horse riding, etc) should not be undertaken at any stage of a pregnancy. 
-Stating that a woman should exercise during a time when she is pregnant, she cannot just decide to "start big" and workout for long periods as this could cause problems. It is recommended through BabyCentre that if the woman has never exercised previously, the she should take precaution and get the go-ahead form the midwife or doctor. After the go-ahead then moderate exercise can occur if she feels comfortable. 
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-In this health promotion resource, the aim will be to safely increase exercise and improve the diet of women who are child bearing. In particular, the increase of eating healthier foods which are lower in fats, such as fruit and vegetables and also to increase the exercise to beat obesity and diseases that can potentially be increased before, during and after pregnancy. Hopefully the improved diet will entice women to eat more healthily. The resource created for this assignment is a leaflet which will describe the advantages and disadvantages of staying healthy through dieting and exercising and other ways there are available to help stay healthy. This will improve people’s perception of a healthy lifestyle. Also by providing suitable exercise regimes and examples of daily diets, it would push the person in the right correction to keep a healthy life style. 
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-=Conclusion= 
-There is a multitude of ways to promote health within communities amongst the population. Once a woman becomes pregnant, it is common for them to seek more information about what they should and shouldn’t do. This makes them increasingly aware of the types of foods and exercises that are available to them and at what stages through the pregnancy that they are essential. It doesn’t matter what types of food that is ingested, whether its vegetarian, vegan or non-vegetarian,​ there are many supplements available to counter the vitamin and mineral deficiencies. However, the withdrawal of meats should not be immediate while pregnant as this can become a devastating result. 
-By looking at the techniques to diet and exercise, the resource is to provide new information so that more information can be gathered to raise awareness that pregnant women can indeed exercise without being hazardous. Also to inform that if no exercise is undertaken, it can get worse due to the fact of related diseases or complications during and after pregnancy can arise if not taking proper care. 
-Even there is the promotion of health, pregnant women still have autonomy and control over their lives and choices that they make in their life. This resource will provide choice which is positive, interesting and informative so that women are more aware and alert in current aspects of fitness and diet during their pregnancy. 
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-=REFERENCES= 
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-Ina Simnett (1995). Managing Health Promotion - Developing Healthy Organisations and Communities. West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 
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-NHS England (2017). Have a healthy diet in pregnancy. Available from: http://​www.nhs.uk/​conditions/​pregnancy-and-baby/​pages/​healthy-pregnancy-diet.aspx 
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-Susan R. Thomas (2014). The Essential Guide to Public Health and Health Promotion. Oxon: Rutledge 
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-Sidell, M., Jones, L., Katz, J., Peberdy, A. and Douglas, J. (2003) Debates and Dilemmas in Promoting Health. London: OU/​Palgrave. ​ 
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-Rachel Dixey, Ruth Cross, Sally Foster and James Woodall (2013). Health Promotion: Global Principles and Practice. Oxfordshire:​ CAB International. 
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-Pul, R., Peterson, J.L. and Luedick, J. (2013). Fighting obesity or obese persons? Public perceptions of obesity-related health messages. International Journal of Obesity 37 774–782 
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-Reed Mangels (2011). The Everything Vegan Pregnancy Book. 
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-Joseph E. Zins, Donald I. Wagner, Charled A. Maher (1985). Health Promotion in the Schools: Innovative Approaches to Facilitating Physical and Emotional Well-Being. 
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-Erik Marcus, (2001). Vegan: The New Ethics of Eating. New York: McBooks Press. 
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-Sanjiv Kumar, GS Preetha, (2012). Health Promotion: An Effective Tool for Global Health. Available at: https://​www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/​pmc/​articles/​PMC3326808/​ 
-Eatwell Plate, Available at: https://​www.food.gov.uk/​northern-ireland/​nutritionni/​eatwell-guide 
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-NHS England (2017). Have a healthy diet in pregnancy. Available from: http://​www.nhs.uk/​conditions/​pregnancy-and-baby/​pages/​healthy-pregnancy-diet.aspx#​sugar 
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-NHS England (2017). Exercise In Pregnancy. Available from: http://​www.nhs.uk/​conditions/​pregnancy-and-baby/​pages/​pregnancy-exercise.aspx 
-American Pregnancy Association,​ (2016). 7 Weeks Pregnant: The 7th week of pregnancy. Available From: http://​americanpregnancy.org/​app/​uploads/​2012/​05/​7-weeks-pregnant.jpg 
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-[[Category:​Biology]] 

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